What is Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia?
Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) also called by the medical professionals as cervical dysplasia and cervical neoplasia. CIN is an abnormal development of cells on the surface of the cervix that are seen under a microscope. Cervix is located at the bottom part of the uterus or womb. This disease is not a cancer but if it doesn’t treated as early as it is detected in can lead to cancer formation which will be a problem to the person who has this disease.
Grade I/CIN 1
Abnormal cells in the cervix damage only the first layer of tissue. It usually goes away on its own so there is no required type of treatment for this disease. It is also called as mild dysplasia or an unusual cell growth.
Grade II/CIN 2
Another term for this second grade is moderate to marked dysplasia. It is where the abnormal cells go into the second and third layer of tissue in the cervix. The recommended treatment for this type of disease is surgery. It is where medical professionals removed the affected part or tissue in the cervix.
Grade III/CIN 3
Another term for this type is called by the medical professionals as severe dysplasia to carcinoma in situ. Carcinoma in Situ is a type of cancer that doesn’t spread to other organs; it only involves the certain part where it develops. Carcinoma in Situ is also called as an early form of tumor. This 3rd grade of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia already damages the third level of the tissue in the cervix. The treatment for this grade is also a surgery that the medical professionals removed the involved tissue.
- Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia normally occurs in women primarily affecting early age adults that are between 25-35 years of age but this disease also affect other age groups.
- Most of the cases of having a Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia is caused by a sexually transmitted disease called HPV or Human Papilloma Virus. HPV is an infection that can spread or infect through skin to skin sexual contact. This disease has no cure.
- Woman who is sexually active or woman who has a multiple sexual partners can also be a reason for having Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia.
- Woman who has a history of smoking or woman who still smoke can have this disease because of the harmful chemicals that is present in cigarettes that has a possible to affect the cells that are present in the cervix.
- Woman that gave birth at an early age. Having an early pregnancy can affect the cervix and it can lead to the development of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia.
- People who have a decrease immune system because it can affect the persons resistance to certain bacteria and viruses and it can lead to development of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia.
- Women who usually been taking oral contraceptive more than 5 years. Oral contraceptives are mostly known as a medicine to prevent pregnancy but it also has different purpose depend on the need of the person who drinks. Taking oral contraceptives can affect the body that can lead to development of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia.
This disease doesn’t show any signs that can lead in an early detection of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia.
- Having a pelvic examination because it can help to detect any abnormalities in the cervix that can help in detection of the disease and to provide early treatment to prevent further problem.
- Pap smear examination or also called as Papaniculaou Exam is a type of examination done in females to detect any abnormalities inside the cervix. It is where medical professionals scrape a part of the cervix for examination.
- Colposcopy is a type of examination that also scrapes a part of the cervix to be examined. It’s direct biopsies that check and detect any abnormalities in the cervix, it can detect any cancer formation and any abnormalities that might lead to the formation of cancer. It is normally ordered by a medical professionals after Pap smear where there shows a result of abnormalities.
- Cone Biopsy or Cold knife cone biopsy is usually ordered by medical professionals after doing the colposcopy. It also help to diagnose any abnormality that also been detected during Pap smear, it’s a minor operation procedure done by professionals to scrape a tissue for the sample.
- CT scan or Computed Tomography can provide clearer image than having an ordinary X-ray examination. It has the ability to define normal from abnormal structures that are present in the body and it can guide the professionals in different procedures in giving accurate details and locations for the treatment.
- MRI or Magnetic Resonance Imaging is also like the CT scan that helps the professionals to detect any formation and abnormal growth in the body.
- PET Scan or Positive Emission Tomography is like a CT scan that can determine any abnormalities inside the body but this machine can also tell if the body reacts well to the treatments given.
Treatments will depend on the stage of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia.
- For Grade I type of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia as it said earlier that this type of disease can go away on its own. The patients just need to comply with regular check-ups as advised by the medical professionals. Have a regular Pap smear that usually advised every 3-6 months. It can also help the medical professionals to detect any changes and give appropriate treatment as early as it is detected.
- Treatments for Grade II and Grade III type of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (1) Cryosurgery is a kind of therapy that used to kill and destroy any abnormal tissue that formed in the body (2) Laser Therapy is a type of treatment that can cut, burn, or even destroy abnormal tissues in the body.
- Loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) uses a low voltage that is used to cut and destroy any abnormal tissues in the body.
- If these treatments doesn’t been effective and the disease leads to a development of cancer, surgery is needed to be considered. These types of surgery has different purpose like (1) Radical Trachelectomy that is only effective if the person only has a stage 1 cancer and the person still wants to bear a child (2) Hysterectomy is recommended for women who already have the advanced stage type of cancer and in this procedure the woman cannot already have the ability to bear a child. To avoid this type of surgery, early detection and treatment must be done.
- Women treated for this Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia must be closely monitored by having a regular follow-up that is usually done ever 3-6 months interval or as advised by the medical professionals.
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